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Thursday, January 12, 2017

Fiat-Chrysler notified of violations of federal and California air quality regulations

Fiat-Chrysler notified of violations of federal and California
air quality regulations



Expanded testing program, developed during VW case, finds
undeclared emission control device



SACRAMENTO — The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has issued
a Notice of Violation to FCA US LLC, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles
N.V., and Chrysler Group LLC (collectively FCA) after detecting
the presence of a number of auxiliary emissions control devices
(AECDs) in 3.0 liter diesel Jeep Grand Cherokees and Ram pickup
trucks from model years 2014-2016. FCA failed to disclose these
devices, which in some cases significantly increase emissions of
nitrogen oxide (NOx) when activated.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency) has issued a similar NOV to FCA covering about
104,000 cars and pickups nationally. There are about 14,000 of
these vehicles on the road in California.

On September 25, 2015 CARB notified major automakers that diesel
vehicles would face expanded emissions testing as part of ARB’s
In-Use Compliance Program, which includes modified test
procedures in the lab, and testing of emissions while the car is
being driven on the road in addition to certification test
cycles. This enhanced testing program was developed during the
Volkswagen investigation and is now being used routinely by CARB
for vehicle certification and in-use compliance testing. The
current violations were discovered as a result of the enhanced
testing procedures.

“Once again, a major automaker has failed to meet their legal
obligations for vehicle certification and gotten caught,” said
CARB Chair Mary D. Nichols. “CARB and U.S. EPA made a commitment
to enhanced testing as the Volkswagen case developed, and this is
a result of that collaboration.”

FCA’s actions have created substantial excess, illegal, and
on-going emissions and harm that have impacted, and continue to
impact, public health and the environment in California.

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is particularly harmful in California. NOx
emissions contribute to the formation of ozone, and can worsen
symptoms of asthma and cardio-pulmonary disease. About 10 million
Californians live in what U.S. EPA considers severe
non-attainment areas for ozone,

The presence of an AECD is not necessarily a regulatory
violation. An AECD is an element of design (for example,
software, strategy, algorithm, hardware, etc.) which in some way
alters the performance of the vehicle emissions control system.
An AECD is sometimes allowed in situations where running the full
emissions control system under extreme conditions could damage
the engine.

It is, however, a violation of California and federal regulations
for an automaker to include any AECD in a vehicle without
notifying the agencies responsible for  certification. None of
the AECDs in this case were disclosed, and many do not operate
during certification testing – only when the car is taken off the
required testing procedures in the laboratory. To date none has
been finally determined to be a “defeat device” as was the case
with VW, but the investigation is still underway.

Of particular concern are AECDs found in these vehicles which
reduce or turn off  exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or reduce the
effectiveness of selective catalyst reduction (SCR) system.  Both
EGR and SCR control the emissions of NOx from the engine.

Today’s NOV includes 11 violations of California’s Health &
Safety Code:


1. Invalid certification applications

2. Importation, delivery, purchase, acquisition, or receipt of
uncertified vehicles

3. Intentional or negligent importation, delivery, purchase,
receipt or acquisition of uncertified vehicles

4. Intentional or negligent sales or offers to sell uncertified
vehicles

5. Sale of vehicles that do not meet emission standards

6. Failure to comply with the emission standards or test
procedures – Durability Data Vehicle

7. Failure to comply with the emission standards or test
procedures – Emissions Data Vehicle (EDV)

8. Failure to comply with onboard diagnostic (OBD) system
requirements

9. Invalid Vehicle Emission Control Information Label (compliance
statement)

10. Invalid smog rating on the Smog Index Label

11. Violation of emission warranty provisions


The next step in the NOV process will be for FCA to justify the
use of the AECDs in the affected vehicles. If the company cannot
do that, additional violations may result.


The CARB cover letter on these violations are here:
https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/fca/fca_cover_letter.pdf


The CARB Notice of Violation is here:
https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/fca/fca_arb_nov.pdf


An FAQ on this case is here:
https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/fca/fca_faq.htm


U.S. EPA documents are here: https://www.epa.gov/fca

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

Nissan Skyline Buyers Guide : Two Doors : Four Doors : GXi to GTS4

Nissan Skyline GTS-t coupe : 2 doors : RB20DET 212 hp


The R32 Skyline debuted in May 1989. It was available as either a 2-door coupe or 4-door hardtop sedan, all other body styles were dropped. The R32 featured several versions of the RB-series straight-6 engines, which had improved heads (the twelve port inlet was gone) and used the ECCS (Electronically Concentrated Control System) injection system. Also available was an 1,800 cc 4-cylinder GXi model. Most models had HICAS four-wheel steering, with the rear wheels being hydraulically linked to the front steering.

The 2.5-litre GTS-25 became one of the first Japanese production cars to feature a 5-speed automatic transmission. The GTS-t came in standard and Type M configurations, with the Type M having larger five-stud 16-inch wheels, four piston front callipers and twin piston rears plus other minor differences. ABS was optional (except for the GT-R and GTS-4), mechanical LSD was standard on the GTR and viscous LSD was standard on all turbo models and optional on all but the GXi.

Nissan also produced 100 Australian models of the R32 GT-R . In addition, there was a 4WD version of the GTS-t Type M, called the GTS-4.

Nissan Skyline GXi with the 90 horsepower Gxi engine


Models:
  • GXi Coupe and Sedan – 1.8 L CA18i I4, 91 PS (67 kW; 90 hp)
    • FR32 production information
  • GTE Coupe and Sedan – 2.0 L RB20E I6, 125 PS (92 kW; 123 hp), 152 N m
    • HR32 production information
  • GTS Type-X, S, J – 2.0 L RB20DE I6 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp), 154 N m
    • HR32 production information
  • GTS-25 Type-X, S, XG – 2.5 L RB25DE I6, 180 PS (132 kW; 178 hp), 231 N m
    • ER32 production information
  • GTS-t, Type-M – 2.0 L RB20DET turbo I6, 215 PS (158 kW; 212 hp), 265 N m
    • HCR32 production information
  • GTS-4 – 2.0 L RB20DET turbo I6, 215 PS (158 kW; 212 hp), 265 N m 4WD
    • HNR32 production information
  • Autech GTS-4 – 2.6 L RB26DE I6, 220 PS (162 kW; 217 hp), Autech Version (auto only) 4WD - only 188 made
    • HNR32 production information
  • GT-R – 2.6 L RB26DETT twin-turbo I6, 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp), 368 N m 4WD; also NISMO, N1, V-Spec, and V-Spec II variants.
    • BNR32 production information
  • NISMO S-Tune


326 - Crystal White691 - White#625/Black#505732 - Black Pearl Metallic2M8 - White #326/Black #KH3AH3 - Red Pearl MetallicBJ0 - Light Blue Metallic
BL0 - Greyish Blue PearlDH0 - Dark Green MetallicDH3 - Greenish SilverJK0 - Yellowish Green MetallicKG1 - Jet Silver MetallicKH2 - Gun Grey Metallic
KH6 - Pearl WhiteKJ1 - Yellowish SilverKL0 - Spark Silver MetallicTG0 - Light Grey MetallicTH1 - Dark Blue Pearl

More information at GT-R Registry.com 

Monday, January 9, 2017

Nonconforming Motor Vehicles That Are Eligible For Importation (By Or Through A Registered Importer) December 2015



Nonconforming Motor Vehicles That Are Eligible  For Importation (By Or Through A Registered Importer)  December 2015

Under 49 U.S.C. § 30112(a), a person may not permanently import into the United States a motor vehicle manufactured after the date that an applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) takes effect unless the vehicle complies with the standard and is so certified by its original manufacturer. This prohibition applies to both new and used motor vehicles, but does not apply to motor vehicles that are at least 25 years old (based on the month and year of manufacture).


All eligibility numbers are for left-hand drive motor vehicles except where the initials "RHD," signifying right-hand drive, appear in the model type column. While there is no specific restriction on importing a right-hand drive vehicle, these may not be imported under eligibility decisions based on the existence of substantially similar U.S.-certified left-hand drive vehicles. Our experience has shown that the safety performance of right-hand drive vehicles is not necessarily the same as that of apparently similar left-hand drive vehicles offered for sale in this country. However, we will consider the vehicles "substantially similar" if the manufacturer advises us that the right-hand drive vehicle would perform the same as the U.S.-certified left-hand drive vehicle in dynamic crash tests. Absent such a showing, the RI would have to demonstrate (through a petition) that the vehicle, when modified, would comply with all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards, including those for which dynamic crash testing is prescribed.



Saturday, January 7, 2017

CARB and U.S. EPA approve emissions modification for limited number of VW 2.0 liter diesel vehicles

CARB and U.S. EPA approve emissions modification for limited
number of VW 2.0 liter diesel vehicles



First approved modification is for “Generation 3” 2015 vehicles



SACRAMENTO — The California Air Resources Board (CARB) and U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) today announced
approval of an emissions modification for a limited number of the
Volkswagen 2.0 liter diesel vehicles with a so-called defeat
device. The vehicles eligible for this modification are referred
to as “Generation 3” and appeared for a single year only, in
model year 2015.

In September 2015, Volkswagen representatives admitted to CARB
and U.S. EPA the presence of a defeat device in 2.0 liter diesel
passenger vehicles sold in model years 2009-2015. This device, in
the form of a set of software commands, engaged the car’s
emissions control system to deliver legal levels of nitrogen
oxide (NOx) when the car was being tested for emissions in the
laboratory. Once on the open road and out of the lab, however,
the defeat device compromised operation of the emissions control
system resulting in excess emissions of NOx at levels well beyond
legal limits. Volkswagen sold approximately a half-million of the
affected diesel vehicles in the U.S. including about 71,000 in
California. This modification applies to more than 10,000 of
those cars in California.

"This is one more step on the road to cleaning up the mess
created by Volkswagen’s deception, but it is by no means the last
step,” said CARB Chair Mary D. Nichols. “There are more
modifications to come for other model years, and further
penalties to be decided."

Because of the presence of the defeat device, these vehicles
emitted up to 40 times the NOx allowed under their certification
requirements. NOx emissions contribute to the formation of ozone,
and can worsen symptoms of asthma and cardio-pulmonary disease.
About 10 million Californians live in what U.S. EPA considers
severe non-attainment areas for ozone. Volkswagen is paying more
than $1.2 billion to the State of California to mitigate past
excess NOx emissions of all 2.0 liter diesel cars, including any
future emissions these cars may produce.

A partial consent decree approved by a federal judge in October
http://www.cand.uscourts.gov/filelibrary/1776/Partial-Consent-Decree.pdf
contains about 60 pages of detailed standards, requirements and
criteria (known as Appendix B) in order for a proposed
modification of these vehicles to be accepted.

There are several different generations of engine technology in
these vehicles, depending on their age. The current accepted
modification is for 2015 “Generation 3” models only and involves
the installation of a second NOx sensor and a new or replacement
diesel oxidation catalyst. This modification will reduce excess
emissions from the affected vehicles by 80 to 90 percent. Owners
of the affected 2.0 liter diesel cars have the option of getting
their vehicle modified or taking an offer from Volkswagen to buy
back the vehicle. Lessees may cancel their leases without
additional cost or penalty. Volkswagen must notify owners of
vehicles eligible for modification within 10 days of this
announcement.

U.S. EPA’s statement and other information is here:
https://www.epa.gov/vw/announcements-volkswagen-violations

CARB Modification FAQ is here:
https://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/vw_info/vw_faq.htm

Volkswagen page is here: https://www.vwdieselinfo.com/

 
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